By Franz Altheim
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For greater than seven centuries lots of the close to East used to be a part of the Roman empire. but no paintings exists which explores the potential wherein an historical energy originating within the western Mediterranean may keep watch over this sort of tremendous and far away sector. What used to be the influence of the military presence at the inhabitants of the provinces?
Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso, forty three BCE–17 CE), born at Sulmo, studied rhetoric and legislation at Rome. Later he did enormous public carrier there, and another way dedicated himself to poetry and to society. well-known at the beginning, he angry the emperor Augustus by means of his Ars Amatoria, and used to be banished due to this paintings and a few different cause unknown to us, and dwelt within the chilly and primitive city of Tomis at the Black Sea.
Robert Knapp seeks out the standard those that shaped the material of lifestyle in historic Rome and the outlaws and pirates who lay past it. they're the housewives, prostitutes, freedmen, slaves, squaddies, and gladiators who lived usual lives and left virtually no hint in historical past - before.
The standard of lifestyles for usual Roman electorate on the peak of the Roman Empire most likely used to be larger than that of the other huge team of individuals residing sooner than the commercial Revolution. The Roman industry economic system makes use of the instruments of contemporary economics to teach how alternate, markets, and the Pax Romana have been serious to old Rome's prosperity.
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The conflict in Spain was second in importance only to the Italian war. From this country the Carthaginians drew large supplies of troops and money that might serve to reinforce Hannibal; hence it was in the interest of the Romans to challenge their enemy within Spain. Though the force that Rome at first spared for this war was small in numbers and rested entirely upon its own resources, the generals Publius Cornelius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, by skillful strategy and diplomacy, not only won over the peoples north of the Ebro and defeated the Carthaginian leader Hasdrubal Barca in his attempts to restore communication with Italy but also carried their arms along the east coast into the heart of the enemy’s domain.
Though Hannibal still maintained himself for some years in southern Italy, this was chiefly due to the exhaustion of Rome. In 203 Hannibal, in accordance with orders received from home, sailed back to Africa; and another expedition under his brother Mago, which had sailed to Liguria in 205 and endeavoured to rouse the slumbering discontent of the people in Cisalpine Gaul and Etruria, was forced to withdraw. Campaigns in Sicily and Spain Concurrently with the great struggle in Italy, the Second Punic War was fought on several other fields.
During the next century Roman senators did not find the political will to suppress the piracy, perhaps in part because it served their interests; pirates supplied tens of thousands of slaves for their Italian estates and disrupted the grain trade, thus raising prices for their produce in Rome. The arrangements of 167 served the Roman policy of weakening the powers of the eastern Mediterranean. In the previous year Rome had also intervened to stop Seleucid expansion into Egypt. In a famous episode, the Roman ambassador Gaius Popillius Laenas delivered to Antiochus IV the Senate’s demand that the king withdraw from Egypt.