By Samuel Elmo Martin
Have you questioned a couple of eastern sentence your textbook fails to provide an explanation for? Do you're feeling uncertain concerning the use of «wa,» «ga,» and «mo?» Or what the foundations and meanings of phrases of their literary types are? if that is so, you'll find your solutions in A Reference Grammar of eastern, the main accomplished and trustworthy reference resource to be had. With an intensive 105-page index, the reader will quick locate reasons for debris reminiscent of wa, ga, mo, ni, and de tough nouns comparable to mono, koto, tokoro, wake, hazu, and tame sentence extensions reminiscent of ne, yo, sa, yara, and nari verb tenses, literary varieties, damaging kinds - in brief, every little thing involved in the japanese language. For the intense scholar, this e-book is vital for clearing up the ambiguities of perplexing jap sentences.
«A actually enormous paintings. the best reference grammars ever written approximately any language.» - magazine of Asian Studies
«A wealth of data has been packed among the covers.» - Monumenta Nipponica
«By a long way the main complete reference grammar of jap within the English language (and probably in any language).» - magazine of Linguistics
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Additional info for A Reference Grammar of Japanese
1 ) . The relationa l particles have a number of uses and meani ngs, so that it seems best to start by summing them u p i n a l ist which i ncludes d isparate uses and mean i ngs that wi l l appear at d ifferent points in the grammar. 2 The l ist thus i ncludes not only all of the specification markers but also some other markers (such as the essive ni that un derl ies the copu la and also u nderl ies certa i n other particles-de, no, and n i-as expla ined later) which overlap in form and/or meaning.
Zyuu-ni n [ no utfn J n i [aru ] h itori 'one [who is] in [the m idst of] ten') ; mizu ni oboreru 'drowns in water' ( ? 4, ? 1 b) ; zyuu-zi no basu ni okureru 'is late for the ten o'clock bus' ( ? 1 3) ; h ito-i ki ni nomu 'drinks it at a gulp'; kam i n i tutumu 'wraps it i n paper' (cf. kamf n i kaku 'writes it on paper' 5a) ; kyoosoo ni katu/ma keru 'wi ns/loses at the competition' (? 4 metaphorical) ; N n i husawasli 'is su itable for/as N = ma kes a nice N' (? 6, ? 9, ? 1 1 9e), me n i/de mienai hodo tiisai 'so small it is i nvisible to the eye' (me ga mienai 'the eyes cannot see = is sightless' wou ld be used only of a bl i nd person) ; Sono su kaato wa .
O ba ... o mo ... mo ... sae/sura [ mo] de mo STEP TWO: Conjoining simplexes with shared nucleus: ( 1) (2) with identical case marker (or none) with d ifferent case markers 2. Si nce zero is a lways an option, the only mislead ing arrows are when a bypass is obligatory, as when you are not permitted to add a core case marker after selecti ng the comparator. These and other details are explained in the text. §1. 33 Chart two CHA R T TWO STEP THREE: From nuclear or simplex sentence to converted sentence.