By Antony Alcock (auth.)
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Few battles resonate via British heritage as strongly as Bannockburn. On June 24, 1314, the Scots lower than the management of Robert the Bruce suddenly trounced the English, leaving hundreds of thousands useless or wounded. The victory used to be one among Scotland’s maximum, the extra so as the Scottish military used to be outnumbered by way of approximately 3 to 1.
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Extra info for A Short History of Europe: From the Greeks and Romans to the Present Day
This was a body of three hundred members from old landed aristocratic families. It was from the ranks of the Senate that the Republic's chief magistrates or executive officers, Consuls and Praetors, were chosen. There were two Consuls, chosen annually, who administered the government by joint decision and commanded the armies. The Praetors administered justice. The Senate was not, however, a legislative body. What it did do was to give advice to the Consuls and Praetors, advice which was not lighdy to be disregarded.
His supporters abroad were rewarded by receiving Roman citizenship. He introduced measures of economic and agrarian reform, extended the franchise to provincial cities and legislated on municipal government. Cisalpine Gaul was admitted to citizenship as were colonies of veterans planted in Greece, Mrica, Gaul and Spain. 11 Although he had also been magnanimous to his opponents in Rome there were still many who resented his dictatorship, especially those who feared not only for the survival of the Republic and its institutions but wished for the return of its values.
First of all, it was better placed strategically compared to the west. Once the line of the Danube had been broken, the invaders would have to face the Bosphorus and one of the largest and best fortified cities of the Empire, Byzantium, later named Constantinople after the Emperor Constantine who, as sole ruler, moved the capital of the Empire there in 330. The only way round that obstacle and into Asia Minor was by sea, and generally the tribes did not extend their operations in that direction, although the Goths did so, invading Bythinia and ravaging the north coast of today's Turkey (256-270).