By Jacob Burckhardt
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Usurpers did indeed rise agamst him - Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus -;hut this was not due to the soldIers' ill wIll because of his severity, but rather to the desperate petulance of the Egyptians, fear of the Lyonnaise and their party of the Emperor's punishment, and a drunkard's terror because of a serious derehction in border duty. In each case the usurper's sway was very bnef. The great ruler, who is regarded as a soldier Emperor exclUSIVely, cherished an ideal of a quite different character.
Men unworthy of it assumed the purple only under constraint; better men no longer pressed forward to the office but recognized in it duty or destiny. There is an unmistakable atmosphere of moral exaltation, The great dangers soon put an end to Philip's reign. He turned to the Senate in terror and offered hIS abdication, There was silence, unW the gallant Decius offered his servICes to subdue Marinus. He was snccessful, but asked to be recalled, for he saw that because\>f the general contempt for Phlhp the army would wish to make him Emperor.
Several such usurped the imperial title at th,S time, but none possessed the talent and enjoyed the success of this Palmyrene patrician, who, with his heroic wife Zenobia, was able to establish a great Onental kingdom. Descended from the Egyptian Ptoleffiles, including the famous Cleopatra, Zenobia with her colorful court of Asiatic generals later (267-278) ruled, on her son,' behalf, a realm extending to Galatia and into Egypt. It was III this territory that Galhenus' generals had successfully dIsposed of lesser usurpers-in southeast Asia Minor the pIrate Trebellian, whom the incorrrglble Isaurians had raised to be theIr lord; III Egypt Aemilianus, the former commandant of Alexandna, who, when a rioting mob threatened hun WIth death, had assumed the imperial title (262-265) in order to evade rendering an account to Galhemis.