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By Peter B. Golden

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Additional info for An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East

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They are also found in Afghanistan (270-400,000) with smaller groups in China, Iraq, Syria and Jordan. TIIE NOR1HWEST OR QIPéAQ GROUP Medieval : Old-Northwestem of the Middle Turkic Period: Quman/Qipcaq/Qangh Modem: PONTO-CASPIAN : Qaraim Qaracay, Balqar QmmTatar Qumuq VOLGA-KAMA-WEST SIBERIAN : Qazan Tatar (including Teptar, MiSiir, Qâsimov Tatar) West Siberian Tatar (including Tural1, Tobolh, ISnnh, Qûrdaq, Irtrsh) Baraba Küerik (transitional toto Central South Siberian Turkic) Ba5qurt (with isoglosses to Central South Siberian Turkic) ARALO-CASPIAN : Qazaq, Qara Qalpaq Q1pcaq Ôzbek dialects Nogay Qrrgu ("only insofar as certain features of the modem literary language are concemed," transitional from Central Asiatic).

Indeed, the Turkicization of the many areas of the North Caucasus56 was halted only by the Russian Revolution. 57 Caucasian consists of four language families whose relationship to one another is problematical : South Caucasian : K'art'velian which is dominated by Georgian (3,570,504 in Georgian SSR). This statistic includes the 71,426 Ajars (noted in 1926) who were Islarnicized and have been Turkicized to sorne degree, numerically very small elements of the Laz/Oms, also Muslim, who are largely on the Turkish Black Sea coast and speak a distinct dialect of Turkish as weil (their numbers are uncertain), Mingrelian, with 360,000 speakers and Svan witb sorne 43,000 speakers.

Xurâsân Turkic 9. Ozbek-Oguz 10. Türkmen. 22 Doerfer,1978, pp. 15-31 and 1987, p. 105 considers it a separate branch ofTurkic. This view bas not found uni versai acceptance, many scholars viewing it as close to Azarbâyjânî, cf. Kakuk, Mai tôrôk, pp. 37-38. TIJRKIC LANGUAGES 22 -g > 0/y Loss of gutterals in suffix anlaut t >d k>g *(l > y. s,z > Tkm. p,(l Modem Populations :the Turks of Turkey: 85% of the population of Turkey (56,969,109 in 1990) is considered ethnically Turkish. The Gagauz of the USSR (largely in the Moldavian SSR) : 173,179.

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